Charles Sturt University
Charles Sturt University

Dr Carol Ireland

Dr Carol Ireland

BSc (Hons) in Applied Psychology, MSc in Psychology and Criminal Psychology, PhD, MBA, Grad Cert with Commendation in Professional Practice in Law: Approved Clinician Training

Profile

Dr. Carol A. Ireland is a Consultant Chartered Psychologist, Forensic Psychologist and Chartered Scientist. She has been working clinically with individuals who have committed sexual offences for 25 years, both as part of psychological assessment and therapeutic interventions. The context of such work as been varied, including HM Prison Service, High Secure Psychiatric Care and in the community. She was an accredited trainer and therapist for the HM Prison Service Sex Offender Treatment Programmes, and is lead trainer for the Life Minus Violence Harmful Sexual Behaviour Therapy (www.tiofp.com). She also has experience of critical incidents (hostage taking, barricades, rooftop protests), both as an advisor and trainer of negotiators, and where she leads on advising and training for Mersey Care NHS Trust, UK. She has regularly published research in the area of sexual offending, sexual exploitation, critical incidents and aggression, as well as presenting nationally and internationally on this topic. She is also Senior Research Lead at the Ashworth Research Centre, Ashworth Hospital. She also works at the University of Central Lancashire, where she is the Director of Studies for the MSc in Forensic Psychology. She currently works at the Coastal Child and Adult Therapeutic Services (CCATS, www.ccats.org.uk), and where she is the Research Lead for the CCATS Internatiional Research Centre.

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Qualifications

  • BSc (Hons) in Applied Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, UK;
  • MSc in Psychology and Criminal Psychology, the Manchester Metropolitan University UK;
  • Doctor in Philosophy, Thesis titled ‘Problems in Adapting to Prison Life’, University of Central Lancashire, UK;
  • Masters in Business Administration (MBA), Open University;
  • Graduate Certificate with Commendation in Professional Practice in Law: Approved Clinician Training, Northumbria University;
  • Accredited EMDR Therapist;
  • Consultant Forensic Psychologist;
  • Chartered Scientist.

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Teaching

At the University of Central Lancashire I teach on consultancy, working with sexual and violent offenders and critical incidents.

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Supervision

I regularly supervise MSc and PhD students. On average, I have 3 – 4 MSc dissertation students per year, and 7 to 8 PhD students at any one time. The topics of the research include child sexual exploitation, deliberate-self-injury/suicidal ideation, staff trauma in forensic services, critical incidents, aggression, terrorism, cybercrime, victims of abuse and psychopathy.

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Research

Current research topics include the following:

  • Child sexual exploitation: the nature and extent, risk and protective factors, model development.
  • Staff trauma: Secondary and vicarious trauma in forensic psychiatric staff and the police, identifying the nature and extent of the trauma response and predictive elements.
  • Critical incidents: The functions and motivations of an individual’s engagement in hostage taking, rooftop protests and barricades (community and forensic psychiatric services).
  • Victims of abuse: The impact on victims exposure to physical and sexual abuse in residential/secure care as children.

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Professional Memberships & Activity

Editor for the Journal of Forensic Practice, and I am an Editorial Board member for the Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice.

One of the National Advisors for the Police in the UK in regard to critical incidents.

Research Lead for the CCATS International Research Centre (www.ccats.org.uk)

Full Member of the Division of Forensic Psychology (British Psychological Society) and a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society. I am a Consultant Forensic Psychologist and a Chartered Scientist.

Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society.

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Grants

Carol secured external funding for a 3 year fully-funded PhD scholarship from the Director of Security at Mersey Care NHS Trust. The student had now completed their studies (2018). Further, Carol has secured funding for 3 part-time PhD students, paid for from Mersey Care NHS Trust (ongoing).

Carol also brings in external income for the Ashworth Research Centre by the Trust paying the University for my time; this equates to around £30,000 and has been in place for the last 3 years. This is linked to my research in hostage and critical incidents, as well as being the C-QUINN lead for security and safer communities. In addition, as of late 2018/19, Carol secured £60,000 funding for CQUINN research from Mersey Care NHS Trust. Finally, Carol has four Maastricht University clinical and research interns, both of which have Erasmus scholarships and are on 10 month placements.

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Selected Publications

Barker, L. F., Ireland, J.L., Chu, S. and Ireland, C. A. (2016). Sleep and its association with aggression among prisoners: Quantity or quality?, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47, 115 – 121.

Brown, S.L., & Ireland, C.A. (2006). Coping style and distress in newly incarcerated male adolescents, Journal of Adolescent Health, 656 – 661.

Davison, S and Ireland C.A. (2009). Substance misuse: the relationship between attachment styles, personality traits and coping in drug and non-drug users, Journal of Drugs and Alcohol Today, 22 – 28.

Dewa, L, Ireland, C.A. and Gredecki, N. (2011). The interpersonal style and complementarity between crisis negotiators and forensic inpatients, Journal of Family Violence, 26, 277 – 283.

Dewa, L. Ireland, C. A. and Ireland, J.L. (2014). Terror Management Theory: The influence of terrorism salience on anxiety and the buffering of cultural worldview and self-esteem, Journal of Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 21(3), 370-384.

Ferguson, K., & Ireland, C.A. (2006). Attitudes towards sex offenders and the influence of offence type: a comparison of staff working in a forensic setting and students, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 10 – 19.

Ferguson, K., & Ireland, C. A. (2012). Attitudes towards victims and perpetrators of hypothetical rape scenarios involving intoxication: an application to the UK, Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research 4(2).

Ferguson, K, Ireland, C.A. and Ireland, J.L. (2013). Developing a self-report measure to assess disclosure strategies in adult male prisoners and its association with personality, Journal of Forensic Practice, 15(2), 97 – 108.

Fisher, M., Ireland, C.A., and Sullivan, E. (2010). Research in Prison. In Grendon and the Emergence of Forensic Therapeutic Communities: Developments in Research and Practice. Wiley-Blackwell: UK.

Higgins, C. & Ireland, CA. (2009). Attitudes towards male and female sex offenders: a comparison of forensic staff, prison officers and the general public in Northern Ireland, British Journal of Forensic Practice, 14 – 19.

Hughes, C. Ireland, J.L. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). Examining the functions of prison critical incidents: A preliminary qualitative analysis of public reporting. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCRPP-12-2017-0040

Ireland, C.A. (1999). Conditions experienced by staff in the control room of a dispersal prison, Prison Service Journal, 121 (January).

Ireland, C.A. (2005). Sex offender group therapy and personal impact on the client: Is there a risk of retraumatisation?, Forensic Update, 82, July.

Ireland, C. A. (2007). What is Sadism and Sexual Sadism anyway?, Forensic Update, 29 – 33, 90, July.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Intellectual Assessment, in Towl, G, Farrington, D, Crighton, D & Hughes, G (eds) Dictionary of Forensic Psychology. UK: Willan Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Neuropsychological Assessment, in Towl, G, Farrington, D, Crighton, D & Hughes, G (eds) Dictionary of Forensic Psychology. UK: Willan Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2008). Cognitive impairment and sex offending: management during therapy and factors in offending, The British Journal of Forensic Practice, 10 (2), 18 – 25.

Ireland, C.A. (2010). The role of a consultant: functions, skills, competences and presentation. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2010). Key stages and factors in the consultancy focus and relationship. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland, C.A. (2011). Application of the critical incident to mental illness and cognitive impairment: considerations and implications. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland, C. A. (2011). Application of the critical incident to personality disorder: considerations and implications. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland, C. A. (2011). Held against their choice: behaviour, considerations and implications for the hostage. In (Eds.) Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland. C. A. (2011) ‘Introduction to Forensic Psychology I: Working with organisations and offenders’ in G. Davey (Ed.), Introduction to Applied Psychology, BPS Wiley-Blackwell: UK.

Ireland, C.A. & Archer, J. (2000). Homesickness among a prison population, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 5, 97-106.

Ireland, C.A., Alderson, K. and Ireland, J.L. (2015). Sexual exploitation in children: Nature, prevalence and distinguishing characteristics reported in young adulthood. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma. Vol 24(6), 603-622.

Ireland, C.A. and Craig, L. (2011) Adult Sex Offender Assessment. In International Perspectives on the Assessment and Treatment of Sexual Offenders: Theory, Practice and Research Eds: D. P. Boer, L. A. Craig, R. Eher, M. H. Miner, and F. Pfafflin. Wiley-Blackwell: UK

Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland, C.A and Fisher, M. (2010). Acting as the consultant advisor in a crisis situation. In (Eds) Ireland C.A. and Fisher, M (2010). Consultancy and Advising in Forensic Practice: Empirical and Practical Guidelines. UK: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

Ireland. C.A, Fisher, M. and Vecchi. G.M. (2011). Conflict and Crisis Communication: Principles and Practice. UK: Routledge.

Ireland, C.A, Halpin, L., and Ireland, J.L. (2015). Exploring individual factors associated with critical incidents in a secure psychiatric setting: A preliminary study. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 22 (2), 259 – 272.

Ireland, C. A., Halpin, L. and Sullivan, C. (2014). Critical incidents in a forensic psychiatric population: An exploratory study of motivational factors. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 25 (6), 714 – 732.

Ireland, C.A., and Huxley, S. (in press). Psychological trauma in professionals working with traumatised children. Journal of Forensic Practice.

Ireland, C.A. & Ireland, J.L. (2000). Descriptive Analysis of the nature and extent of bullying behavior in a maximum security prison, Aggressive Behaviour, 26, 213 - 223.

Ireland, C.A., Ozanne, R and Ireland, J.L. (2016). Brief review spotlight: Females who sexually offend. Journal of Forensic Practice, 18 (4), 296 – 300.

Ireland, J.L, Bates-Gaston, K, Markey, K, Greenwood, L and Ireland, C.A. (2016). Evaluation of a cognitive skills programme for male prisoners – Exploring treatment effectiveness. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 2 (4), 244 – 249.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A. and Power, C. L. (2016). Attitudes towards prisoner-to-prisoner bullying and the association with prison environments: Examining the components. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 8 (2).

Ireland, C.A., Naylor, K., & Wilkes-Riley, F. (2003). Personality disorder and psychopathy: facing challenges in sex offender group treatment, Forensic Update, 75, 31 – 36, October.

Ireland, C.A., & Rogers, J. (2004). Adapted Sex Offender Therapy: Responsivity Factors, Forensic Update, July.

Ireland, C.A. & Vecchi, G.M. (2009). The Behavioral Influence Stairway Model (BISM): a framework for managing terrorist crisis situations? Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 1(3), 203 – 218.

Ireland. C.A. (2017) Assessment of hostage situations and their perpetrators: In the context of domestic violence. Assessments in Forensic Practice: A Handbook (Eds) K.D. Browne, A. R. Beech, and L. A. Craig. Wiley: UK

Ireland, C.A. (2017). Functions of critical incidents and their management in secure forensic services. In Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A., Fisher, M., & Gredecki, N. (Eds). The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Psychology in Secure Settings, Routledge, UK.

Ireland, J.L, Birch, P. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression: Current Issues and Perspectives, Routledge, UK

Ireland, C.A. (2018). Examining harmful sexual behaviour in male children: Considering the implications for practice. In Ireland, J.L, Birch, P. and Ireland, C.A. (2018). The Routledge International Handbook of Human Aggression: Current Issues and Perspectives, Routledge, UK

Ireland, J.L., Boustead, R., & Ireland, C.A. (2005). Coping style and psychological health among adolescent prisoners: a study of young and juvenile offenders, Journal of Adolesence, 28, 411 - 423.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A., Fisher, M., & Gredecki, N. (2017). The Routledge International Handbook of Forensic Psychology in Secure Settings, Routledge, UK.

Ireland, J.L., & Ireland, C. A. (2003). How do prisoners define bullying? A study of adult, young and juvenile male offenders. Journal of Legal and Criminological Psychology, 8(2), 159 – 173.

Ireland, J.L. and Ireland, C.A. (2008). Intra-group aggression among prisoners: bullying intensity and exploration of victim-perpetrator Mutuality, Aggressive Behavior, 34 (1), 76 – 87.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A. and Birch, P. (2008). Violent and Sexual Offenders: Assessment, Treatment and Management. UK: Willan Publishing.

Ireland, J.L., Ireland, C.A., (2011).  Personality structure among prisoners: How valid is the Five Factor Model and can it offer support for Eysenck’s theory of criminality?  Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 21 (1), 35 - 50.

Ireland, J.L, Ireland, C.A, Lewis, M, Jones, C and Keeley, S. (in press). Initial development of an implicit and explicit approach to assess psychopathy. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry.

Ireland, J, Priday, L, Ireland, C, Chu, S, Kilcoyne and J, Mulligan, C. (2016). Predicting hospital aggression in secure psychiatric care, British Journal of Psychiatry Open, 2, 96–100, doi: 10.1192/bjpo.bp.115.002105.

Lewis, M , Ireland, JL , Abbott, J and Ireland, CA (2017) Initial development of the psychopathic processing and personality assessment (PAPA) across populations. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry., 54 – 118 – 132.

Madden, A. and Ireland, C.A. (2017). Developmental Factors and Drug Use in Young Offenders. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 3 (1).

McBride, H and Ireland, C. A. (2016). The impact of coping style, self-efficacy, emotional reaction and resilience on trauma related intrusive thoughts. Journal of Forensic Practice, 18 (3), 229 - 239.

Pitman, I., & Ireland, C.A. (2003). Cognitive ability sex offender therapy, Forensic Update, 73, 14 – 19, April.

Porter, C.P., Ireland, C.A,. Gardner, K.J. and Eslea, M. (2016). Exploration of emotion regulation experiences associated with borderline personality features in a non-clinical sample. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation, 3:8 DOI: 10.1186/s40479-016-0040-6.

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