Marcus Smith

Course Directors

Associate Professor Marcus Smith

LLM (ANU), MPhil (Cambridge), PhD (ANU)

Course Director, Law / Associate Professor in Law
Room 114

Marcus is an Associate Professor in Law. He undertakes research, supervision and teaching in the field of technology law and regulation. His recent publications include Technology Law: Australian and International Perspectives (Cambridge University Press, 2021) and Biometric Identification, Law and Ethics (Springer, 2021). Marcus publishes in Australian and international journals, presents in a wide range of fora and contributes to government law reform.


  • LAW222 Technology Law

Research Areas

  • Technology Law and Regulation


  • PhD: Genetic Privacy under Australian Law (Principal supervisor)
  • PhD: History of Criminal Law (Co-supervisor)
  • Hons: Identification Technologies (Co-supervisor)


Technology Law  Biometric Identification, Law and Ethics 




Smith, M. (2022). Technology Law: Cases, Commentary and Materials, LexisNexis.

Smith, M. and Miller, S. (2021). Biometric Identification, Law and Ethics, Springer.

Smith, M. and Urbas, G. (2021). Technology Law: Australian and International Perspectives, Cambridge University Press.

Smith, M., Mann, M. and Urbas, G. (2018). Biometrics, Crime and Security, Routledge.

Smith, M. (2016). DNA Evidence in the Australian Legal System, LexisNexis.

Refereed articles

Smith, M. and Mann, M. (2024). ‘Facial Recognition Technology and Potential for Bias and Discrimination’, in R. Matulionyte and M. Zalnieriute (eds), The Cambridge Handbook on Facial Recognition in the Modern State, Cambridge University Press (in press).

Smith, M. and Walsh, P. (2023). ‘Security Sensitive Research: Balancing Research Integrity, Academic Freedom and National Interest’, Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management (in press).

Smith, M. and Tiwari, M. (2023). ‘The Implications of National Blockchain Infrastructure for Financial Crime’, Journal of Financial Crime (in press).

Smith, M. and Miller, S. (2023). ‘The Evolution of Forensic Genomics: Regulating Massively Parallel Sequencing’, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (in press).

Miller, S. and Smith, M. (2023). ‘Combating COVID 19: Surveillance, Autonomy and Collective Responsibility’ in K. Macnish and A. Henschke (eds), Surveillance in Times of Emergency, Oxford University Press (in press).

Urbas, G. and Smith, M. (2023). ‘Domestic Laws Governing Post-Pandemic Crime and Criminal Justice’, in R. Smith et al. (eds), Cybercrime in the Pandemic Digital Age and Beyond, Palgrave (in press).

Miller, S. and Smith, M. (2022). ‘Quasi Universal Forensic DNA Databases’, Criminal Justice Ethics, vol. 41.

Smith, M. and Urbas, G. (2022). ‘Evolving Legal Responses to Social Media in Australia: Litigation, Legislation and System Architecture’, ANU Journal of Law and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 8-31.

Smith, M. (2022). ‘Technology Law in Legal Education: Recognising the Importance of the Field’, Legal Education Review, vol. 32, pp. 19-32.

Smith, M. and Miller, S. (2021). 'A Principled Approach to Cross Sector Genomic Data Access’, Bioethics, vol. 35, pp. 779-786.

Miller, S. and Smith, M. (2021). ‘Ethics, Public Health and Technology Responses to COVID-19’, Bioethics, vol. 35, pp. 366-371.

Gainsford, A., Smith, M. and Gerard, A. (2021). ‘Accrediting Indigenous Australian Content and Cultural Competency within the Bachelor of Laws’, Legal Education Review, vol. 31, pp. 59-80.

Smith, M. and Walsh, P. (2021). ‘Improving Health Security and Intelligence Capabilities to Mitigate Biological Threats’, International Journal of Intelligence, Security, and Public Affairs, vol. 23, pp. 139-155.

Smith, M. and Miller, S. (2021). ‘The Ethical Application of Biometric Facial Recognition Technology’, AI & Society, vol. 37, pp. 167-175.

Smith, M., Thackray, S. and Nolan, M. (2021). ‘Transitioning Residential Schools Online in a Pandemic: Social Distancing and Technology-based Law Teaching’, Law Teacher, vol. 56, pp. 146-157.

Smith, M. (2020). ‘A Modern Approach to Regulation: Integrating Law, System Architecture and Blockchain Technology in Australia’, Australian Business Law Review, vol. 48, pp. 460-466.

Smith, M. and Heath Jeffery, R. (2020). ‘Addressing the Challenges of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine’, Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 50, pp. 1278-1281.

Smith, M. (2020). ‘Integrating Technology in Contemporary Legal Education’, Law Teacher, vol. 54, pp. 209-221.

Heath Jeffery, R. and Smith, M. (2020). ‘Artificial Intelligence in Ophthalmology: Current Applications and Emerging Issues’, Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, vol. 48, pp. 536-537.

Smith, M. and Urbas, G. (2019). ‘A Century of Science in Australian Criminal Law’, Australian Bar Review, vol. 47, pp. 72-85.

Smith, M. and Urbas, G. (2019). ‘Prints, Profiles and Templates: Adducing Biometric Evidence in Australian Courts’, Australian Law Journal, vol. 93, pp. 668-681.

Smith, M. and Heath-Jeffery, R. (2019). ‘A Comparative View of Australian Education in Law and Medicine’, Journal of Law and Medicine, vol. 26, pp. 612-620.

Smith, M. (2019). ‘Three Stages in the Development of DNA Evidence in Australia’, Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 51, pp. 705-714.

Smith, M. (2018). ‘Universal Forensic DNA Databases: Balancing the Costs and Benefits’, Alternative Law Journal, vol. 43, pp. 131-136.

Smith, M. (2018). 'The Contribution of the Senate to Criminal Law Reform', Criminal Law Journal, vol. 42, pp. 51-65.

Mann, M. and Smith, M. (2017). 'Automated Facial Recognition Technology: Recent Developments and Regulatory Options', University of New South Wales Law Journal, vol. 40, pp. 121-145.

Smith, M. and Smith, R. (2016). 'Procedural Impediments to Effective Unexplained Wealth Legislation in Australia', Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, vol. 523, pp. 1-9.

Smith, M. and Mann, M. (2015). 'Recent Developments in DNA Evidence', Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, vol. 506, pp. 1-7.

Urbas, G., Faunce, L. Skillen and Smith, M. (2012) 'Responding to Fraud in the Australian Health, Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Sectors: A Proposal for Reform', World Review of Business Research, vol. 2, pp. 109-119.

Smith, M. and Urbas, G. (2012). 'Regulating New Forms of Forensic DNA Profiling under Australian Legislation: Familial Matching and DNA Phenotyping', Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 44, pp. 63-81.

Faunce, T, G. Urbas, L. Skillen and SmithM. (2010). 'Recovering Fraudulent Claims for Australian Federal Expenditure on Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices', Journal of Law and Medicine, vol. 18, pp. 302-315.

Law reform submissions

Smith, M. (2022). Submission and Testimony to the Victorian Department of Justice, Independent Review of Victoria’s DNA Laws, June 2022.

Smith, M. (2022). Submission and Testimony to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Consultation on Strengthening Human Rights Protection in the Use of AI Technologies at Borders, June 2022.

Miller, S. and Smith, M. (2021).Charles Sturt University Submission to the Australian Department of Home Affairs, Strengthening Australia’s Cybersecurity Regulations and Incentives, August 2021.

Smith, M. (2019). Submission to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, Review of the Identity-matching Services Bill 2019 (Australian Parliament), September 2019.

Smith, M. (2019). Submission to the Australian Human Rights Commission, White Paper on Artificial Intelligence: Governance and Leadership, March 2019.

Smith, M. (2018). Submission to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security, Review of the Australian Passports Amendment (Identity-matching Services) Bill 2018 (Australian Parliament), June 2018.


‘Facial Recognition and Potential for Bias and Discrimination’, International Conference on Facial Recognition in the Modern State, Vilnius, Lithuania (online), September 2022.

‘Joint Rights, Collective Responsibility and Genomic Data Access’, World Congress of Bioethics, Basel, Switzerland (online), July 2022.

‘Domestic Laws Governing Post Pandemic Crime and Criminal Justice: Technology Law and Regulation’, Cybercrime in the Post Pandemic Digital Age and Beyond, Adelaide, Australia, July 2022.

‘Biometrics and National Security’ Intelligence Ethics Workshop, Canberra, Australia, February 2019.

‘Emerging Forms of Identification Evidence’ International Policing and Security Conference, Sydney, Australia, November 2018.

‘Cards, Profiles and Templates: Regulating Human Biometric Information and Biological Material’ Australasian Association of Bioethics and Health Law Annual Conference, Townsville, Australia, September 2018.

‘International Perspectives on Identification Evidence’ International Criminal Law Symposium, New York, United States, August 2018.

‘Imagining Future Criminal Law in Australia’ Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology Annual Conference, Canberra, Australia, December 2017.

‘Biometrics in Criminal Investigation’ Presentation to National Police Academy of India, Hyderabad, India, November 2017.

‘Applications of DNA Evidence and Big Data in Criminal Investigations’ National Police University of China International Conference on Criminal Investigation and Forensics, Shenyang, China, October 2017.

‘Balancing Competing Interests in Contemporary Forensic Science’ Charles Sturt University, Centre for Law and Justice, Research Seminar, Canberra, Australia, September 2017.

‘Biometrics, Crime and Security: New forms of DNA Identification’ Tenth Workshop on the Social Implications of National Security, Sydney, Australia, August 2017.

‘Recent Developments in Biometrics’ Presentation at Tilburg Institute for Law and Technology, Tilburg, Netherlands, September 2016.

‘Automated Facial Recognition Technology: Recent Developments and Strengthening Oversight’ European Society of Criminology Annual Conference, M√ľnster, Germany, September 2016.

‘Confiscating the Proceeds of Crime: Unexplained Wealth Legislation in Australia’ 33rd International Symposium on Economic Crime, Cambridge, United Kingdom, September 2015.

‘The Identification and Control of Risk: Professional Facilitators and Money Laundering in Australia’ 33rd International Symposium on Economic Crime, Cambridge, United Kingdom, September 2015.

‘DNA Evidence in Australia: Historical Developments and Future Directions’ University of Sydney Evidence Law Workshop, Sydney, Australia, September 2015.

‘Issues Associated with the Expansion of Forensic DNA Database Capabilities' Australian Institute of Criminology Seminar Series, Canberra, Australia, September 2014.

‘DNA Profiling under Australian Legislation: Familial Matching and DNA Phenotyping’ Australian Institute of Judicial Administration (AIJA) Criminal Justice in Australia and New Zealand - Issues and Challenges for Judicial Administration Conference, Sydney, Australia, September 2011.

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